Jazz – a style of improvisation. The most important type of improvised music is folk, but unlike jazz, it is closed and is aimed at the preservation of traditions. In jazz prevails creativity, which in combination with the development of improvisation gave a variety of styles and genres. So the songs of black African-American slaves were brought to Europe and become a complex orchestral works in the style of blues, ragtime, boogie-woogie, and others. Jazz has become a source of ideas and techniques that are active, almost all other kinds of music from the popular and commercial to classical music our century. DODO ORCHESTRA easily perform various jazz compositions.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Jazz has its roots in a mixture of European and African musical cultures that began thanks to Columbus discovered America for the Europeans. African culture in the face of black slaves transported to the west coast of Africa to America, gave jazz improvisation, plastic and rhythm, European – melody and harmony of sounds, minor and major standards.
Until now, there is debate as to where was first performed jazz music. Some historians believe that this musical direction was born in the north of the United States, where Protestant missionaries paid blacks in the Christian faith, and they in turn have created a special kind of spiritual songs «spirituals», which differed emotion and improvisation. Others are convinced that jazz emerged in the southern United States, where African-American musical folklore managed to retain its identity, only due to the fact that Catholic views inhabited this part of the mainland Europeans, did not allow them to contribute to the foreign culture to which they were treated with contempt.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Despite the difference in the views of historians, there is no doubt that jazz was born precisely in the United States, and the center of jazz music was New Orleans, which was inhabited by free-adventurers. February 26, 1917 here in the studio «Victor» was recorded the first shellac collective «Original Dixieland Jazz Band» with jazz music.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
After jazz firmly entrenched in the minds of men, it began to appear different directions. Today there are more than 30.
Some of them are:
One of the pioneers of jazz is Spirituals (English. Spirituals, Spiritual music) – spiritual songs of African-Americans. Spirituals as a genre took shape in the last third of the XIX century in the United States as a modified slave songs of the Negroes of the American South (at that time used the term “dzhubiliz”).
Negro spirituals are a source of spiritual hymns that got to America by white settlers. Theme of spirituals were Bible stories, which were adapted to the specific conditions of everyday life and everyday life of blacks and subjected folk treatment. They combine the characteristic elements of African performance traditions (collective improvisation, a characteristic rhythm with a strong polyrhythms, glissandovye sound untempered chords, special emotion) with the stylistic features of the American Puritan hymns that have arisen on the basis of anglokeltskoy. Spirituals have a question-answer structure, which is expressed in the dialogue with parishioners preacher. Spirituals have significantly influenced the origin, formation and development of jazz. Many of them are used by jazz musicians as themes for improvisation.
One of the most common – the blues, which is a child of secular music-making of the American Negro. The word «blue», in addition to the known values of the “blue”, has many translations, which completely characterize the features muzkalnoy style, “sad”, “melancholy.” «Blues» has a relationship with the English expression «blue devils», meaning “when the cat scratching on the soul.” Blues music slow and unhurried, and the lyrics are always some innuendo and ambiguity. Today, the blues is most often used only in instrumental form, as a jazz improvisation. That’s the blues became the basis of many outstanding performances Armstronga Louis and Duke Ellington.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Ragtime – another specific direction of jazz music that emerged in the late XIX century. The very name of the style is translated as “torn Time”, and the term «rag» means sounds that appear between the proportions of stroke. Ragtime, like all jazz, this is another European musical passion, which was taken by African Americans and executed in its own way. It is fashionable at the time in Europe Romantic piano school, which was in the repertoire of Schubert, Chopin, Liszt. This repertoire heard in the United States, but in the interpretation of African-American blacks, he acquired a more complex rhythm, dynamics and intensity. DODO ORCHESTRA takes the hits in this style. Later improvisational ragtime began to pay in notes and popularity he has added that in every self-respecting family was bound to be a piano, including mechanical, which is very convenient to play complex melodies Ragtime. Cities where ragtime was the most popular destination muzkalnoy St. Louis and Kansas City and the town of Sedalia (pieces. Missouri), in Texas. It was born in the state’s most famous artist and composer Scott Joplin ragtime genre. He often appeared in the club «Maple Leaf», from which the name of a famous ragtime “Maple Leaf Rag”, written in 1897. Other well-known authors and performers ragtime were James Scott, Joseph Lamb.
In the early 30-ies of the economic crisis in the United States and led to the collapse of a large number of jazz ensembles, orchestras were mainly playing psevdodzhazovuyu commercial dance music. An important step in the development of the style was the evolution of jazz in new scrubbing and smoothed direction is called swing (from the English «swing» – «Swing”). Such jazz on perfume DODO ORCHESTRA. Thus, an attempt was made to get rid of slang while the word “jazz”, replacing it with a new “swing.” The main feature of the swing was brilliant improvisation soloist on the background of a complex accompaniment.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Great jazz musicians of the swing:
“Swing – that’s what my understanding is this rhythm.” Louis Armstrong.
“Swing – this feeling of acceleration of pace, although you still play at the same pace.” Benny Goodman.
“Orchestra swings if its collective interpretation rhythmically integrated.” John Hammond.
“Swing to feel this sensation, which can be transmitted to others.” Glenn Miller.
Swing demanded musicians good technique, knowledge of harmony and principles of musical organization. The main form of the music-making – large orchestras or big bands that have received immense popularity among the general public in the second half of the 30s. The orchestra gradually acquired a standard form and included 10 to 20 people.
In the era of swing gained widespread popularity and development of a specific form of execution of the blues on the piano, which is called “Boogie Woogie.” This style was born in Kansas City and St. Louis, then was extended in Chicago. Boogie-woogie pianists had borrowed the Southern states from the artists who play the banjo and guitar. For pianists, performing boogie characteristic combination of “walking” bass, played by the left hand and improvisations on blues harmony with his right hand. The style emerged early as the second decade of this century, when it played a pianist Jimmy Yancey. But this popularity it has gained with the advent of the public three virtuosos “Meade Lux” Lewis, Pete Johnson and Albert Ammons, who turned the boogie-woogie from the dance to the live music. Continued use of the boogie-woogie occurred in the genre of swing, and then rhythm-and-blues bands and greatly influenced the emergence of rock ‘n’ roll.
In the early 40s many creative musicians began to feel the acute stagnation in the development of jazz, which arose due to the emergence of a huge number of trendy dance and jazz bands. They did not seek to express the true spirit of jazz and used to replicate blanks and techniques of the best teams. Trying to break out of the impasse was made by young, first of all – New York musicians, among which include alto saxophonist Charlie Parker (Charlie Parker), trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie (Dizzy Gillespie), drummer Kenny Clarke (Kenny Clarke), pianist Thelonious Monk (Thelonious Monk). Gradually, in their experiments was to emerge a new style that gets with a light hand Gillespie called “bebop” or simply “bop”. According to legend, the name was formed as a combination of syllables, which he sang characteristic bop musical interval – blues fifth, appeared in bope in addition to blues thirds and seventh. DODO ORCHESTRA jazz perform at a concert a few hits of this style The main difference was the new style of sophistication and built on other principles of harmony. Super-fast tempo was introduced by Parker and Gillespie, in order to not let their new improvisations nonprofessionals. The complexity of the construction of sentences compared to swing primarily composed of the initial lobe. Improvisational phrase in bebop may begin with a syncopated share can with the second part; phrase often beaten already known theme or harmonic lattice (Anthropology). Among other things, the hallmark of all bibopovtsev became outrageous demeanor. Bent pipe “Dizzy” Gillespie, Parker and Gillespie behavior, ridiculous hats, and so on Monk. D. That revolution, which has made bebop, was rich in implications. In the early stages of his work boperami considered: Erroll Garner, Oscar Peterson, Ray Brown, George Shearing and many others. Founder of bebop only the fate of Dizzy Gillespie developed successfully. He continued his experiments, founded Cubano style, popularized Latin jazz, opened the world of Latin American jazz stars – Arturo Sandoval, Paquito DeRivero, Chucho Valdes, and many others.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Recognizing as bebop music that demanded musician instrumental virtuosity and knowledge of complex harmonies, jazz instrumentalists quickly gained popularity. They compose melodies that made zigzags and rotation in accordance with the chord changes of increased complexity. Soloists in his improvisations used dissonant in tone music, making music more exotic, with a sharper sound. Attractiveness syncopation led to unprecedented accents. Bebop is best suited to play in a small group format type quartet and quintet, which were ideal and economic, and artistic reasons. Music flourished in urban jazz clubs where the audience came to hear inventive soloists, rather than dancing to your favorite hits. In short, the band bebop jazz converted into such an art form that appealed maybe a little more to the intellect than to the senses.
From bebop era came new jazz stars, among them trumpeter Clifford Brown, Freddie Hubbard and Miles Davis, saxophonist Dexter Gordon, Art Pepper, Johnny Griffin, Pepper Adams, Sonny Stitt and John Coltrane, as well as trombonist JJ Johnson.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
In the 1950s and 1960s, bebop was more mutations, among which were the styles of hard bop, cool jazz and soul-jazz. The format of a small musical group (combo), usually consisting of one or more (usually no more than three) of wind instruments, piano, bass and drums, it remains the standard jazz composition today.
In parallel with the emergence of bebop, jazz developed in the environment of a new genre, progressive jazz, or simply progressive. The main difference between this genre becomes the desire to move away from frozen cliche big bands and obsolete methods zatёrtyh m. N. symphojazz introduced in 1920 by Paul Uaytmenom. Unlike bopperov, progressive creators did not strive for a radical rejection of the jazz tradition, prevailing at the time. Rather, they sought to modernize and improve the swing phrases models, introducing the practice of composition recent advances in the field of European symphonic tone and harmony.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
The greatest contribution to the development of the concepts of “progressive” made a pianist and conductor Stan Kenton. From his first works actually originates progressive jazz early 1940s. The sound of music, performs his first orchestra was close to Rachmaninoff, and the composition was carried traits of late Romanticism. However, the genre that was closest to symphojazz. Later, during the creation of the famous series of his albums «Artistry», elements of jazz has ceased to play the role of creating color and has organically woven into the musical material. Along with Kenton, the credit for this belongs to his best and arranger, Pete Rugolo, student Darius Milhaud. Modern (for the years) symphonic sound, a particular technique in the game staccato saxophone, bold harmonies, frequent and second blocks, along with polytonality and jazz rhythmic pulsation, are the distinguishing features of this music, which Stan Kenton for many years known in the history of jazz, as one of its innovators who have found a common platform for the European culture and symphonic elements of bebop, especially noticeable in the plays where solo instrumentalists as opposed to the sounds of the rest of the orchestra. We should also mention a lot of attention being paid to Kenton in his compositions improvised parties soloists, including the world-famous note drummer Shelly Mayne, bassist Ed Safranski, trombonist Kai Winding, June Christy, one of the best jazz singers of those years. Fidelity to the chosen genre of Stan Kenton kept throughout his career.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
In addition to Stan Kenton, its contribution to the development of the genre have also made interesting arrangers and instrumentalists Raybern Boyd and Bill Evans. A kind of apotheosis of progressive development, along with the already mentioned series «Artistry» can be considered and a series of albums recorded big band Bill Evans together with the ensemble of Miles Davis in 1950-1960’s, for example, “Miles ahead,” “Porgy and Bess” and “Spanish paintings.” Shortly before his death, Miles Davis once again turned to this genre, writing old aranzhementy Bill Evans with the big band of Quincy Jones.
Around the same time, when cool jazz took root in the West Coast jazz musicians from Detroit, Philadelphia and New York City have begun to develop a hard, heavy variation of the old formula of bebop, known as hard bop or Hard bop. Closely resembling the traditional bebop in his aggressiveness and the specifications hardbop the 1950s and 1960s was based less on standard song forms and began to pay more attention to the elements of blues and rhythmic drive. Incendiary soloing or improvisation skills with a strong sense of harmony is the property of paramount importance for the executors of the wind instruments in the rhythm section more notable was the participation of the drums and the piano and the bass has got more fluid, funky feel.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
In 1955, drummer Art Blakey and pianist Horace Silver formed the band “The Messengers Jazz» (The Jazz Messengers), the most influential band playing in the style of hardbop. This constantly improve and develop the septet, which worked successfully until the 1980s brought to many of the major jazz artists of the genre, such as saxophonists Hank Mobley, Wayne Shorter, Johnny Griffin and Branford Marsalis, as well as trumpeter Donald Byrd, Woody Shaw, Wynton Marsalis and Lee Morgan. One of the biggest jazz hits of all time, Lee Morgan tune of 1963, “The Sidewinder” (“Sidewinder”) has been executed, if somewhat simplistic, but definitely in the dance style of hard bop.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
A close relative hardbopa, soul jazz is represented by small, based on the organ mini-compositions that have emerged in the mid-1950s and continued to perform in the 1970s. Based on the blues and gospel music soul jazz pulsating African-American spirituality. Most of the great jazz organists came on the scene in the era of soul jazz: Jimmy McGriff, Charles Erland, Richard “Groove” Holmes, Forest McCain, Donald Patterson, Jack McDuff and Jimmy “Hammond” Smith. All of them were in the 1960s, their groups, often playing in small rooms in a trio. Tenorsaksofon in these ensembles and was a prominent figure, adding his voice to the overall mix, like the voice of the preacher in the gospel. Such luminaries as Jean Emmons, Eddie Harris, Stanley Terrentayn, Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis, Houston Person, Hank Crawford and David “Fathead” Newman, as well as members of the ensemble of Ray Charles the late 1950s and 1960s are often regarded as representatives style soul-jazz. The same applies to Charles Mingus. Like a jazz audience DODO ORCHESTRA. As hardbop, soul-jazz jazz different from the West Coast: This music evokes passion and a strong sense of unity and not of loneliness and emotional coolness peculiar to West koest jazz. Rapidly twisted soul jazz tunes, thanks to the frequent use of ostinato bass figures and repetitive rhythmic samples made this music is very accessible to the general public. Among the hits, born soul jazz include, for example compositions pianist Ramsey Lewis’ Insiders »(« The In Crowd »-1965) and Harris-McCain” Compared to what »(« Compared To What »-1969). Not to be confused soul jazz with what is now known as “soul music.” Despite the partial effect of gospel, soul, jazz grew out of bebop, and the roots of soul music back directly to popular since the early 1960s rhythm and blues.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Cool Jazz (Sool Jazz)
The term appeared cool after the album «Birth of the Cool» (record 1949 – 50 years), the famous jazz musician Miles Davis.
According to the methods of sound, cool jazz harmonies have a lot in common with modal jazz. Characterized by emotional restraint, the tendency to move closer to the composer’s music (strengthening the role of composition, form and harmony, polifonizatsiya invoices), the introduction of symphony orchestra instruments.
Outstanding representatives of cool jazz are trumpeters Miles Davis and Chet Baker, saxophonist Paul Desmond, Gerry Mulligan and Stan Getz, pianists Bill Evans and Dave Brubeck.
To cool jazz masterpieces include compositions such as «Take Five» Paul Desmond, «My Funny Valentine» by Gerry Mulligan, «` Round Midnight »Thelonious Monk performed by Miles Davis.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Modal jazz (English. Modal jazz), movement that emerged in the 1960s. It is based on the organizing principle of modal music. In contrast to traditional jazz, modal jazz harmonic foundation replaced frets – Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and pentatonic musical scale as other European and non-European origin. Accordingly, in the modal jazz improvisation has developed a special type: the incentives of the musicians are not looking at changing chords, and to emphasize the features of the mode in poliladovyh overlays, etc. This direction is represented by such outstanding musicians as Thelonious Monk, Miles Davis, John Coltrane, George Russell, Don Cherry.
Perhaps the most controversial movement in the history of jazz emerged with the advent of free jazz, or the “New Thing”, as it was later called. Although the elements of free jazz existed within the musical structure of jazz long before the term itself, the most original in the “experiments” such innovators as Coleman Hawkins, Pee Wee Russell and Lennie Tristano, but only towards the end of 1950 the efforts of pioneers such as saxophonist Ornette Coleman and pianist Cecil Taylor, this trend took shape as an independent style.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
What created these two musicians together with others, including John Coltrane, Albert Ayler, and communities like “Sun Ra Arkestra» (Sun Ra Arkestra) and the group called “Revolutionary Ensemble» (The Revolutionary Ensemble), consisted of a variety of changes in the structure and a sense of music. Among the innovations that were introduced with imagination and great musicianship, was a rejection of the chord progression, allowing the music to move in any direction. Another fundamental change was found in the area of rhythm, where the “swing” was either revised or ignored altogether. In other words, pulse, meter and groove were no longer an essential element in this reading of jazz. Another key component was associated with atonality. Now music dictum no longer built on a conventional tonal system. Shrill barking, convulsive notes completely filled this new sound world. Free jazz and today continues to exist as a viable form of expression, and in fact is no longer so controversial style, which he received at the dawn of its occurrence.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Funk – another popular destination jazz 70s and 80s. The founders of the style are James Brown and George Clinton. In a diverse set of funk jazz idioms displaced simple musical phrase consisting of blues cries and moans, taken from the saxophone solo artists such as King Curtis, Junior Walker, David Sanborn, Paul Butterfield. The word funk was considered slang, it means to dance so very vzmoknut. Jazzman often used it, addressing the audience as a request to dance and move actively to the accompaniment of music. Thus, the word “funk” was assigned to the style of music. great hits jazz funk play DODO ORCHESTRA. Dance direction funk defines its musical features, such as downed rhythm and a pronounced vocals.
Formation of the genre occurred in the mid-80s and is associated with the fashion for the use of samples of jazz funk 70s of DJs playing in nightclubs UK. One of the genre, is considered to be a DJ Dzhillsa Peterson, who is often credited with authorship of the name «acid jazz». In the United States, the term «acid jazz» is rarely used, more common terms «groove jazz» and «club jazz».Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.
Acid jazz (acid jazz)
The peak of popularity acid jazz accounts for the first half of the 90s. While in this direction in addition to the synthesis of dance music and jazz, jazz-funk attributed 90 (Jamiroquai, The Brand New Heavies, James Taylor Quartet, Solsonics), hip-hop with elements of jazz (recorded with live musicians or jazz samples) (US3, Guru, Digable Planets), experimenting with jazz musicians, hip-hop music (Doo Bop Miles Davis, Rock It Herbie Hancock), and so on.. After the 1990s, the popularity of acid jazz began to decline, and the traditions of the genre were later continued in New jazz.
Its direct ancestor is on the part of the psychedelic Acid Rock.
It is believed that the term «acid jazz» invented Gilles Petterson, London DJ and founder of the eponymous record label. In the late 80’s the term was popular with playing this kind of music of British DJs who used it as a joke, implying that their music is an alternative to the then popular acid house. Thus, a direct relationship to the “acid” (ie LSD) the term has not. In another version of the author of the term «acid jazz» is an Englishman Chris Bangs (Chris Bangs), known as one of the duo “Soundscape UK”.Samba, Brazilian music, tango, argentine tango.